(regarding the Principles)

It is basic that all statements made in the following pages about Man's rights--his liberties or freedoms--are to be considered as subject to the fact of the existence of the inseparable duty factor of Individual Liberty-Responsibility and especially this factor's primary aspect. This aspect is the duty to respect the equal rights of others. The term Individual Liberty always connotes Liberty-Responsibility because Liberty cannot exist separate and apart from Responsibility, nor Right from Duty.

The term "unalienable rights" should, in every instance of its use, be read as meaning God-given, unalienable rights, because the only basis for considering them to be unalienable is the fundamental and uniquely American concept of their Divine origin--that Man possesses them solely by reason of endowment by his Creator. Unless considered to be of Divine origin, these rights cannot properly be classified as being unalienable. They are then subject to being considered as mere conditional privileges granted by government. In such case, there can be no moral or constitutional basis for objecting to their violation, by government or by others, such as exists in the case of God-given rights as protected traditionally by the American constitutional system; such government-granted privileges are not comparable in dignity with God-given rights.

In the presentation of definitions and discussion of Principles, some overlapping and repetition have been unavoidable. The aim has been to make the definition and discussion of each Principle as self-sufficient as possible in order to permit quick reference to it alone, from time to time, with minimum risk of misunderstanding by any reader. This enhances greatly the usefulness, to the many, of the presentation as a frequently consulted study-guide, and especially to the Young and others not familiar with the subject.

For most convenient reference, the following definitions of the Principles are presented first, then followed by the supporting "Background Discussion." These definitions embody the present writer's own phrasing, in the light of his careful analysis based upon long and extensive research among original sources--some noted in the "Background Discussion." The definitions are unique; they are not to be found in any other writings--not even anything comparable; hence the great potential value and usefulness of this study-guide.

THE AUTHOR (Hamilton Abert Long)